What revolutions made the tank, machine gun, poison gas, and mortars possible?

What revolutions made the tank, machine gun, poison gas, and mortars possible?

What revolutions made the tank, machine gun, poison gas, and mortars possible?

What revolutions made the tank, machine gun, poison gas, and mortars possible?

Necessity is the mother of invention.  I can come at this question from a few different angles.  First, I could say the industrial revolution led to the use of interchangeable parts and mass production, making weapons in the numbers needed for these wars.I can also argue some specific revolutions, such as the American Civil War (southerners liked to refer to it as the Second American Revolution) during which the Gatling gun became the world’s first machine gun.The tank was a revolution in tactics, slow to mature, but first developed in World War I and then perfected in the blitzkrieg style fighting of World War II.  It revolutionized the way armies fought, and had fought for hundreds of years – with a mass infantry charge.Poison gas was a revolution in warfare because it represented one aspect of the death of chivalry and the advent of total war.  Its use in World War I removed any last pretense of “rules” of war.Lastly, the invention of the mortar (much earlier) could be considered a revolution in ballistics and artillery.  Small, portable, very effective and manned by a small crew, it made artillery more mobile and effective.
What revolutions made the tank, machine gun, poison gas, and mortars possible?